Discovering the cerebellum

Dyslexia: News from the web:

New study where they review the evidence for cerebellar dysfunction in dyslexia, including clinical, behavioral, and structural and functional neuroimaging data; these findings are considered in the context of the increasing appreciation of the role of the cerebellum in language, cognition and complex skill acquisition.

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Diagnosing the brain

Dyslexia: News from the web:

It remains difficult to diagnose what is going on in the brain. See the article in today’s link:

Concussions are finicky. They look different in different people. There still isn’t a clear biological signature we’re able to track. So instead, trainers and doctors lean on reported symptoms and neurocognitive tests, which measure things like memory, processing speed, and reaction time, to guide concussion diagnosis.

These tests, though, don’t serve all athletes equally: Disabilities, particularly learning disabilities like attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and dyslexia, skew the results, making concussions more challenging to diagnose and treat in disabled athletes.

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Readvolution coming

Dyslexia: News from the web:

Square Panda and Andre Agassi today announced Readvolution, a new initiative by the Andre Agassi Early Childhood Neuroscience Foundation that aims to drive innovation in dyslexia assessment and intervention. Readvolution plans to engage scientists from the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Weill Institute for Neurosciences to produce the first scientifically validated technology for scalable universal screening of dyslexia.

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Are US dyslexia laws not necessary and unfair?

Dyslexia: News from the web:

Professor Elliott, from the UK, argues that the current dyslexia policies in the US undermine the education and life chances of large numbers of children, particularly those from socially and economically disadvantaged backgrounds.

True? or is he promoting his book: The Dyslexia debate ?

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studying dyslexia with song birds

Dyslexia: News from the web:

Zebra Finches however, learn how to communicate through song from their parents. In this manner, they are similar to infants, as their  auditory system is shaped by exposure to adult speech.

As such, Zebra Finches allow for scientists to develop a model that can be used to study the effects of mutations on auditory learning and processing.

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No Evidence for Systematic White Matter Correlates of Dyslexia and Dyscalculia

Dyslexia: News from the web:

A very interesting study has been completed. They compared people with dyslexia, dyscalculia, both and neither. They focused on the corona radiata and the arcuate fasciculus, two tracts associated with reading and mathematics in a number of previous studies. Using Bayesian hypothesis testing, they showed that the data showed no differences between groups for these particular tracts, a finding that seems to go against the current view in other studies.
This outcome, if confirmed, suggest that structural differences associated with dyslexia and dyscalculia might not be as reliable as previously thought, and this may have some impact on how we approach remediation.

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New insights from research

Dyslexia: News from the web:

Research tells us that dyslexia is due to a problem in language rather than in vision, specifically the phonological system, which is used for processing speech sounds. Phonological processing refers to using speech sounds for coding information when reading, listening, and speaking. Although it’s important to assess for phonological abilities like phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid naming, these alone should not determine whether one has dyslexia. “It’s important to do a comprehensive assessment that extends beyond phonological processing,”

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search with dyslexia, a challenge

Dyslexia: News from the web:

As many as 20% of English speakers have dyslexia, a language disability that impacts reading and spelling. Web search is an important modern literacy skill, yet the accessibility of this language-centric endeavor to people with dyslexia is largely unexplored. We interviewed ten adults with dyslexia and conducted an online survey with 81 dyslexic and 80 non-dyslexic adults, in which participants described challenges they face in various stages of web search

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Schools still fail Dyslectics

Dyslexia: News from the web:

While scientists estimate that between 5 and 12 percent of children in the United States have dyslexia, just 4.5 percent of students in public schools are diagnosed with a “specific learning disability,” a category that includes dyslexia and other learning disabilities, according to the National Center for Education Statistics. In addition, while schools routinely screen children for hearing impairment, a problem that occurs much less frequently than dyslexia, screening for dyslexia is rare.

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ADHD, Dyslexia, Athletes and Concussions

Dyslexia: News from the web:

Risk factors for concussion are plentiful—playing soccer, playing football, having a prior concussion, being female. In an addition to the scientific to-do list, a new report is calling for researchers and to pay attention to something else that seems to make concussions more likely: learning disabilities.

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Deaf Children worse in reading compared with Dyslectics

Dyslexia: News from the web:

The British education system is neglecting the needs of severely and profoundly deaf children, many of whom have major reading difficulties, according to new research from City, University of London.

In one of the largest studies of its kind, funded by the Nuffield Foundation, the researchers found that over half of the  involved who communicated using spoken language and four fifths of those who used  had reading difficulties at least as severe as those faced by   with dyslexia, and in some cases they were more severe.

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A new view on Dyslexia

Dyslexia: News from the web:

Researchers used ultra-high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion MRI, and probabilistic tractography to investigate the structural connections of the visual sensory pathway in dyslexia in vivo. They discovered that individuals with dyslexia have reduced structural connections in the direct pathway between the left visual thalamus (lateral geniculate nucleus [LGN]) and left middle temporal area V5/MT, but not between the left LGN and left primary visual cortex. In addition, left V5/MT-LGN connectivity strength correlated with rapid naming abilities—a key deficit in dyslexia .

These findings provide the first evidence of specific structural alterations in the connections between the sensory thalamus and cortex in developmental dyslexia. The results challenge current standard models and provide novel evidence for the importance of cortico-thalamic interactions in explaining dyslexia.

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Dyslexia detection before you read?!

Dyslexia: News from the web:

A study has been carried out by the Basque Centre on Cognition, Brain and Language (BCBL), associating auditory processing in children to their reading skills. The results offer a new approach for detecting the risk before the children learn to read.

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artificial eye dominance and dyslexia

Dyslexia: News from the web:

Researchers performed a reading test with their subjects. They used the fact that, although the brain presents us with one image, there is a delay between the the first eye forming an image and the second doing so. So, if you are sitting in a dark room and a page of letters is illuminated by a flashing light—the light flashes are too fast to perceive—then only one eye at a time can form an image. In this case, the brain should not be presented with conflicting images.

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It may be the eyes after all

Dyslexia: News from the web:

French scientists claim they may have found a physiological, and seemingly treatable, cause for dyslexia hidden in tiny light-receptor cells in the human eye.

In people with the condition, the cells were arranged in matching patterns in both eyes, which may be to blame for confusing the brain by producing “mirror” images, the co-authors wrote in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

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When learning to read is not easy

Dyslexia: News from the web:

Stanislas Dehaene outlines in his book, “Reading in the Brain,” our brains were not originally designed to read.  Our brains were designed to hunt for food and look out for predators, not to create meaning from symbols on paper. 

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A new tool for Dyslexia online

Dyslexia: News from the web:

The tool provides the opportunity for users to underline words or highlight material on online texts and choose among 15 dyslexic friendly colors and font size options or a Text-to-Speech option, supporting almost all languages.

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Play games to improve dyslexia!

Dyslexia: News from the web:

A recent study published in the prestigious journal Scientific Reports reveals that these video games improve not only visual attention, but also verbal memory. The researchers have discovered that improvements in reading speed, following a few hours of playing a typical video action game is due to stimulation of specific brain circuits which improve, not only visual attention, but also memorizing words and language.

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Learn to read and change your brain

Dyslexia: News from the web:

A new study has found that deep areas of the brain are re-purposed to create the neural network necessary for acquiring literacy skills. Luckily, even the adult brain can undergo this process with relative ease.

if just a few months of literacy education can lead to fundamental changes in the thalamus, then the hypothesis that dyslexia may be caused by thalamus dysfunctions will need further study. One possible way of investigating this would be to check for thalamus dysfunction in preschool children (who have not yet begun to read) from families with a history of dyslexia.

 

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Kids with dyslexia more prone to social, emotional problems

Dyslexia: News from the web:

Children with dyslexia are more likely to encounter a range of social and emotional difficulties – such as feelings of anxiety, depression and low self-esteem – than their peers.

And having strong social support networks may help to buffer them against such negative outcomes.

These were the main findings of a study by the University College London (UCL), based on responses of 99 Primary 3 pupils with dyslexia across 13 primary schools here.

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